- Lack of effective leadership
- People are aligned to tribe. The concept of country is still fairly new.
- Imitation of western society. The african elites copy what they pick up from the west and thus cause western problems in a society that has never dealt with them because africa is not even remotely like the west.
- Western media content. Fosters western ideals and preconceptions of africans in africans themselves. Makes us pride-less, hopeless etc. feelings of helplessness
- Tradition; old practices preventing progress are still practiced widely.
I think personally what must be done is going to be very painful and is going to destroy Africa as we know it but I see no other way. Governments must create policies that spread certain key "trade" languages or lingua franca's so to speak so that more Africans understand each other and will be able to communicate and thus trade with each other. Part of the success of the Middle Ages East African coast was because KiSwahili was understand around the whole Indian ocean. Sharing a language means sharing a culture and thus will also create feelings of union among otherwise separate peoples. This will destroy the more than one thousand languages that are in Africa currently and many cultures but will create a solid "African" culture that Africans will be willing to invest in.
The other option is to do away with the idea of nations and borders but this fragmentization will lead to increased conflict.